Fundamental Principles Of Insurance

Insurance is a contract, a risk transfer mechanism whereby a company (Underwriter) promised to compensate or indemnify another party (Policyholder) upon the payment of reasonable premium to the insurance company to cover the subject-matter of insurance. If you are well conversant with these principles, you will be in a better position in negotiating you insurance needs.

1. Insurable interest. This is the financial or monetary interest that the owner or possessor of property has in the subject-matter of insurance. The mere fact that it might be detrimental to him should a loss occurred because of his financial stake in that assets gives him the ability to insure the property. Castellin Vs Preston 1886.

2. Umberima fadei. It means utmost good faith, this principle stated that the parties to insurance contract must disclose accurately and fully all the facts material to the risk being proposed. That is to say that the insured must make known to the insurer all facts regarding the risk to be insured (Looker Vs Law Union and Rock 1928). Likewise, the underwriter must highlight and explain the terms, conditions and exceptions of the insurance policy. And the policy must be void of small prints.

3. Indemnity. It stated that following a loss, the insurer should ensure that they placed the insured in the exact financial position he enjoyed prior to the loss (Leppard Vs Excess).

4. Contribution. In a situation where two or more insurers is covering a particular risk, if a loss occurred, the insurers must contribute towards the settlement of the claim in accordance with their rateable proportion.

5. Subrogation. It has often been said that contribution and subrogation are corollary of indemnity, which means the afore-mentioned two principles operates so that indemnity does not fail.

Subrogation operates mainly on motor insurance. When an accident occurred involving two or more vehicles, there must be tortfeasor(s) who is responsible for accident. On this basis, the insurer covering the policyholder who was not at fault can recover their outlay from the underwriter of the policyholder who is responsible for the incidence.

Things to Check before Hiring a Tax Attorney

Finding the right tax attorney in Maryland can be a daunting task especially because very few people are dedicated to tax law. It becomes even more difficult when you are already frustrated with tax problems. Choose the perfect one and your problems will be vanished. Choose the wrong person and you are never going to come out of the impending doom. Therefore it is crucial to select your tax attorney wisely.

Though it may take a little time and effort to find the right person it is always better to count on a professional than handling such complicated issues yourself. Whether it is a certified tax resolution specialist or a certified public accountant or a tax attorney, selecting the ideal representative is key to your success.

One can have various kinds of tax problems such as audit issues, back taxes, tax returns, payroll taxes or other tax collection. If you encounter any similar problem the first thing you will think of doing is going through Google or the Yellow Page to find out a who will be aware of the local law.

So you have managed to get the contact details of a few Maryland tax attorneys. What next? How do you know whom to hire and whom to avoid? Go through the checklist below to get some handy tips on how to find out the right attorney.

Questions to Ask a Tax Attorney

The first thing to ask is what kind of cases does he handle? Is it personal income tax issue or charity tax issue? Is it business tax problem or estate tax concern? If you are having problem with personal income person choose the one who deals with this issue. Try to see whether the attorney deals with federal law only or he handles state taxes as well? Does he have the experience of dealing with tax problems in multiple jurisdictions? How long the attorney has been in this business and how long is he solving IRS problems? What is his success rate with the tax cases he has handled? Focus on the success rate instead of number of cases because dealing with the IRS is quite difficult. Does he offers any guarantee when you handover your case? Check your lawyer with the Better Business Bureau. If he has more than 20 complaints it is better to stay away from him. Ask about his previous clients and see whether he allows you to talk to them. If he hesitates it is probably better to move on. Make sure that there is no hidden cost and the attorney gives you a clear estimate right at the beginning.

Keep these few points in mind while interviewing a prospective attorney and you are likely to find out the right person. Go through and choose the right one, here you will find many qualified lawyer profile to opt for.

Tax Issues The IRS Problems of Pastors

Pastors can have tax problems just like everyone else. A high moral character and desire to comply with the tax code embodied by the Internal Revenue Service is no guarantee that you wont run afoul of the IRS, though. Its entirely possible to knowingly violate tax laws and be considered a criminal. There is also a distinct possibility of unwittingly violating tax codes and ending up being considered a criminal as well.

The types of problems pastors typically experience with the IRS are of the second variety. Without intending to violate the law, pastors occasionally find themselves in trouble.

Pastors are under a special set of IRS regulations that allow for specified deductions. The tax code changes regularly, and the amount and types of deductions allowed one year can be different the following year. Pastors without experience in personally handling their own tax filing responsibilities should consult professional tax accountants to make sure theyre following the rules.

Occasionally pastors fall into the trap of avoiding taxes due to a process commonly known to the public as shortcutting. A pastor with a low income qualifies for all sorts of tax privileges, but detailed and correct tax filing must be made in order to take advantage of them. Its tempting to shortcut the process by skipping the filing requirements if the benefits seemingly arent worth the headaches to receive them. Failing to file a return or otherwise violating the filing requirements results in a black eye for clergymen and possible penalties as well.

Another common IRS problem experienced by pastors is the dreaded audit. Those giving a substantial amount of their income to qualified charities or other recipients are often red flagged by the IRS in a legitimate attempt to discover tax dodgers trying to reduce taxable income through giving. Pastors that are notified of an audit would do well to have a professional tax accountant go into the audit with them. Even pastors arent immune to IRS problems. Obtaining the services of tax professionals may be expensive, but its worth the cost if it helps avoid run-ins with the Internal Revenue Service.

Importance Of Product Liability Insurance In Businesses

Product liability insurance covers businesses from claims against injury, illness, or a loss caused by use of their products. In the realm of product liability insurance, product is defined as tangible goods which are sold or given away. A product supplier or manufacturer is duly responsible for any damage that his product might cause to a consumer.

If a product causes damages or injuries, the consumer can bring a claim against the supplier. It does not really matter whether he is the manufacturer or not. For instance, if you have an eatery and the food served leads to the death of more than fifty people, the product liability claim will be huge. As much as the conventional logic holds the manufacturer responsible for a defect, it’s quite hard to prove it.

The risk magnitude, claim and premium are ascertained through various ways such as the customers purchasing the product, how it was used, and warning labels that the product has. The product liability cover guards a company against any unanticipated circumstances that may cause damages or injuries to the product users. In case a person manufactures inferior items, there is no insurance cover that can protect him. For a manufacturer, the cover is massively important; just a small defect could make a firm be a target for big claims.

Manufacturers should look for product liability packages that cover all manufacturing quality, indemnity costs, safety claims and others. They can also lower the premium costs by taking some measures in advance. These measures must however be disclosed to the insurance company.

Product liability insurance is there for the wider benefit of the business. There are occasions when a general liability insurance policy includes product liability although a business sometimes has to get a specific product liability cover. This type of insurance is so critical because the business of providing products to a customer is very risky, more so if the product can become defective and cause injuries or property damages. Whether a business is the distribution, manufacturing, retailer, intermediary, refurbishing or any other component of the distribution chain, the risk of product liability claims is quite high.

Rather than face lawsuits, legal claims or any other legal expenses, which can really devastate a company and make it run out of business, firms are encouraged to take product liability insurance. This is an aid against any consumer debacles that may arise on the legal front.

Dealing With The Insurance Adjuster After Water Damage

A water damage event his hit your home, and one of the first things you should do is to check your insurance policy or call your insurance agent and determine if your damage is covered. Even though you may be faced with plenty of damage and the beginning of mold, all homeowners policies dont automatically cover all types of water damage.

Once you understand what your policy covers, then you can quickly begin to remediate the damage to your property and begin to get the information to file a claim assuming you know what will be covered, according to the web site insure.com.

First and foremost, as some residents of New Orleans and the Mississippi Gulf Coast learned during Hurricane Katrina in 2005, a flood is not covered by homeowners insurance. Floods are only covered by flood insurance thats issued by the National Flood Insurance Program and cant be bought through nearly any insurance company.

Heres the kicker, though. Flood insurance policies have a ceiling not shared by homeowners insurance, and a separate level for contents that many people dont bother to adjust to their situations. So many homeowners in New Orleans wanted their homeowners insurance to handle the situation, because it provided more coverage.
Water damage from a leaking room is covered by most homeowners insurance, though the damage to the roof is not. Thats because of the generally accepted principle that anything related to maintenance falls to the homeowners. Roofs need to be properly maintained so the roof damage is not allowed.

Likewise, water from an appliance overflowing or pipes freezing and bursting, are both covered. Again, insurance companies general cover water damage if it was a sudden, catastrophic event, and not, as insure.com explains, a gradual wear and tear over time that proper maintenance could have avoided.

And two final areas of water damage: Seepages from the ground into the basement and sewer backup. Neither of these are covered by homeowners insurance. Seepage clearly is a gradual event that can be diagnosed and corrected before any significant damage results. Sewer backup is something that many insurance policies around the country specifically exclude.

So, now you know whether your own water event is covered by homeowners, flood insurance or has to be repaired out of pocket. And you are ready to take the next step – which is to document the damage and get an adjuster to your house as soon as possible to begin the process of submitting an insurance claim.

In tax, property tax is a way of revenue collection

First of all it is necessary to understand the meaning of tax and that is whatsoever kind of wealth or assets anyone is possessing in the country has to pay tax for it.

There is tax on almost everything and this tax collection is one of the important aspects for the income of the country. The economy of the country rests upon it. There are several kinds of tax and property tax is among them. Supposed if someone is having a land on his name then there are few charges which have to pay to the municipal of that particular place in form of property tax.

How these taxes works

This tax goes into the account of government. There is no loss in paying these taxes, there are various kinds of benefits which can be enjoyed if these taxes are paid timely and no tax evasion is done. In the taxation it is being emphasized that tax evasion can lead to evil consequences. House tax is the property tax and this is an essential part of the tax. This house tax is collected on the house in which person and his family is living. It is not sure about the property tax that how much is going to be charges. The owners of the property there is levy which is being imposed by the government at different rates have to be paid by the returning authority.

Who collects the tax?

For the local bodies means the government this property tax is the main source and entire residents are suppose to pay these taxes on time. If these tax are delayed or not paid and huge debit comes over the tax evader than there are severe punishment and stern actions which are directed by that particular authority. The main thing in this property tax is the entire area which is registered and thus tax is imposed on over that entire area. If these taxes are ignored then the amount keeps on credited over the government and the owner of the house has to pay it at any cost because in case he fails to submit the tax on time then that particular institution or department will collect the tax with proper channel. The tax money cannot be cheated nor can it be avoided.

How To Get Medical Insurance For A Surrogate Mother

Getting surrogate insurance coverage, that is, medical insurance to cover the surrogate pregnancy, can be tricky. There are a few different options for obtaining practical surrogacy insurance, depending on the situation of the surrogate mother and intended parents.

First, if at all possible, plan to use the surrogate mother’s existing health insurance policy, probably thorough her employer or her husband’s. Most health insurance policies will cover a surrogate mother, as their own insured, while she is pregnant. It is frankly none of the insurance company’s business how she got pregnant!

But some insurance companies are going out of their way to prevent surrogate motherhood. Take a copy of the surrogate’s insurance benefits booklet to your surrogacy attorney to verify if you can use this policy.

If that doesn’t work, there are a few more ways to obtain surrogate insurance coverage. The easiest, and least expensive at this point is to purchase a regular individual plan from a local insurance agency. Watch, again, for exclusions with surrogate motherhood. Also, sometimes these plans come with a 6-12 month waiting period before they will pay for pregnancy.

It probably should be mentioned that the insurance policy an intended parent carries, most likely through their employment, will not cover the pregnancy of the surrogate mother, regardless of the fact that it is their biological child. The surrogate mother is not the insured party.

There are some surrogacy insurance policies specifically designed for surrogate mothers. These policies really only insure a worst case scenario event, cost thousands to purchase, and come with deductibles in the $5,000-10,000 range. Some intended parents choose to add this sort of policy onto an existing surrogate insurance coverage.

But what happens when a surrogate mother and her intended parents believe that they are covered, get pregnant, and then find out there was an error and her insurance company refuses to cover the pregnancy? Or what if she loses the coverage halfway through the surrogate pregnancy?

There are not too many private insurance companies out there willing to insure a preexisting condition, such as an already pregnant woman. (And if you find one, please let me know!) The options are few in this situation. The intended parents can either pay for the rest of the medical bills in cash, hopefully negotiating a better rate directly with hospitals and doctor’s offices, or they can purchase a discount medical card.

A discount medical card will save the intended parents some considerable money, but it is not the same as having actual surrogate insurance coverage. Still, it’s a terrific option for those in this sort of sticky situation, and can be obtained after the surrogate mother is already pregnant.

A Travel Insurance Plan is Imperative for Travelers

A travel insurance policy is also referred to as a trip insurance policy in India. This is an inevitable need for all travelers. Regardless of the destination you plan to visit, you need to buy travel insurance. In fact, you need to focus on buying the best plan available on the market.

The concept of travel insurance has acquired popularity only recently. And many also think that it is fit only for foreign trips. This is not true. The plan is important for national as well as international travelers. So if you have a trip on your mind, it is time to look for the best insurance plan as soon as possible. Most of the travel insurance plans are designed in a fashion to offer prompt protection against sky rising enormous medical expenses incurred due to a wide range of problems travelers may encounter on a daily basis.

So what are the common perils a traveler is vulnerable to? Some of the major risks include theft of baggage, cash and passport, loss of passport, accidents, injuries, postponement of trip, delay of flight etc. Sometimes, there is a medical emergency abroad and the traveler needs to be shifted to the home country or a different place for treatment. This requires a lot of money. Buying a travel insurance plan will help you get rid of the sudden expense you come across in a foreign land.

When you buy travel insurance in India, the insurance company takes the responsibility of any expenses incurred due to potential risks. Travel insurance will also offer you immediate attention in the times of emergency.

To buy a travel insurance policy, you should rely only on the best insurance company. A reputed organization will offer you guarantee on protection against perils while travelling. Prior to buying an insurance plan, you should also know about your specific requirements and budget. This is how you can invest in something that is the best for you.

Buying a travel insurance plan for travel will protect you against the following perils:

Natural disasters such as hurricane, flood, earthquake, etc.

Passport loss

Baggage loss

Accident

Health problem

Ambulance expenses

Emergency evacuation

Expenses incurred during hospitalization

Medications bills

Cash loss

If you are serious about travelling safe, buying travel insurance plan is a must. Ignoring the importance of insurance may result in a huge financial loss.

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It is very essential to have a travel insurance policy. Author Pranav Sharma is an experienced insurance professional and widely read expert on general insurance based in Mumbai. Pranav helps readers opt for best .

New stimulus Plan Tax Incentives For Buyers Of Electric Scooters

Energy conscious consumers considering purchase of electric vehicles and electric scooters have an increased incentive to purchase these vehicles due to a tax credit buried in the recent Economic and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

Incentives for plug- in hybrid vehicles take effect in 2010 but incentives for smaller electric vehicles take effect with the passage of the bill. The $787 Billion bill passed by the Congress, and signed by the President gives a tax credit incentive to purchasers of electric vehicles of different types.

All electric powered vehicles benefit from the new tax credit. Immediately benefiting are buyers purchasing a category of vehicles known as light electric vehicles or LEV’s. The LEV category includes four wheeled Neighborhood Electric Vehicles or NEV, and two and three wheel electric powered scooters.

The criteria for qualifying are based on the electric energy storage capacity of the battery. For two and three wheel vehicles the minimum size battery storage that qualifies must be rated at a minimum of 2.5kwh of stored energy capacity. For a NEV type vehicle the minimum battery storage capacity that qualifies is 4 kWh. To determine if the vehicle you are considering qualifies take the amp hour capacity rating of the battery times the battery voltage and divide by 1000. If the result is 2.5 or greater, the scooter, or three wheel vehicle, will qualify for the credit. For example if the specifications on the scooter you are considering has a battery rated: 5X12V/50 Ah the calculation is as follows: (5X12v) 60 X 50 Ah = 3000 Divided by 1000 = 3 KWh, which exceeds the 2.5 kWh minimum criteria.

For vehicles that qualify there is a 10% tax credit on electric vehicles up to a maximum purchase price of $25,000 which would result in a maximum credit of $2,500 on a vehicle costing $25,000. This tax credit may be in addition to local tax or purchase incentives that may be in place in some local municipalities, and is effective for purchases made after the date the bill was signed

The tax credit incentive will be welcome news to anyone considering purchase of an electric scooter.

Travel Insurance Fraud The Consequences

Rebecca and Shanti were both honest law-abiding citizens with law degrees from Sussex University, so it came as something of a surprise when they were recently arrested in Brazil for committing holiday insurance fraud. The two girls allegedly told the police that thieves had stolen around 1,000 of their possessions, including a camera and laptop computer. However, officers became suspicious of their calm demeanour and the fact that it had taken the girls days to report the alleged offence.

The police subsequently demanded to see the girls lodgings, where they claim to have uncovered all the possessions which the girls claimed had been stolen en-route to Brazils Iguassu Falls. Rebecca and Shanti could face up to five years imprisonment if they are found guilty of committing holiday insurance fraud in Brazil, and this sentence is actually quite lenient when you consider some of the punishments that they could face if they had committed the crime in a different country.

In England, tourists face up to 10 years imprisonment as a result of making fraudulent holiday insurance claims. This sentence could even be on top off additional penalties, such as repayment of the amount you claimed and compensation to your travel insurance company. You would have thought that the prospect of a ten year prison sentence would put most people of committing travel insurance fraud, but last year 4,300 dishonest claims worth 5million were made through holiday insurance companies in the UK alone.

Overseas police forces and travel insurance companies, have now started to get increasingly more vigilant about holiday insurance cheats, a policy which no doubt led to the arrest of Rebecca and Shanti. Details of fraudulent travel insurance claims have now been kept on an industry-wide database, which will be accessed by the Financial Services Authority and insurance companies. This means that anyone caught trying to commit holiday insurance fraud will now automatically face higher insurance costs and have difficulty obtaining other insurance cover, such as home insurance. On top of this, attempting to commit travel insurance fraud may also impact on your credit rating, which would make it more difficult to obtain goods or borrow money in the future.

It is reported that 75,000 Britons have at some point in their lives committed holiday insurance fraud, either by making a false claim or by exaggerating an existing one. Records from travel insurance companies show that Britons lose more Louis Vuitton luggage abroad than is actually ever sold in the UK.

So many fraudulent claims, however, could see the end of cheap travel insurance, as holiday insurance companies may need to put up their prices in order to make up for the losses that they may incur.

Rebecca and Shantis Brazilian sentence may have seemed tough, but if the girls had attempted to commit holiday insurance fraud within the UK then they would have risked a much stricter sentence.